Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common conditions encountered by the medical profession. Patients presenting to the urologist for consultation regarding UTIs usually have either recurrent or difficult to treat infections. These infections may lead to frustration from consultants and patients due to the trial and error of antibiotic therapy, recurrent painful symptoms, spread of infection, and side effects of therapy. The urologist’s role is to manage the complex UTI and infectious complications while, at the same time, to find and treat the underlying etiology so as to prevent or reduce further episodes. In an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, UTIs have become more complex to manage, making it prudent to frequently engage our infectious disease colleagues with our patients. Herein, we will examine the various common patient-specific scenarios important to urologists (Figure 1). Basic definitions are listed in Table 1. However, the most important aspect regarding infectious disease in urology is to quickly recognize patients that need immediate hospital admission and/or surgical intervention from those that can be managed as an outpatient.
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