Before the surgeon offers a patient a laparoscopic (or robotic assisted) procedure, it is critical that he or she understand the unique intraoperative physiologic consequences that arise from the pneumoperitoneum. In addition, the endoscopic approach to intra-abdominal surgery risks unique complications of which the surgeon must be aware and prepared to manage.
1.1 Key words
laparoscopy, robotic, pneumoperitoneum, complication
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