Around 30% of all congenital anomalies are congenital anomalies of the kidney (see Core Curriculum section Kidney, Adrenal, Ureter) and urinary tract (CAKUT).1 These anomalies account for close to 50% of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in children.2 The goal of this chapter is to discuss urinary tract embryology, the most common CAKUT diagnoses and common patient management information urologists should know. While the embryology of the kidney and bladder are dealt with elsewhere (see Core Curriculum section Kidney, Adrenal, Ureter), Table 1 and Table 2 give a summary of important information pertinent to this section.
For this section, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract discussed are divided into four major categories (Table 3):
(i) Renal parenchyma anomalies
(ii) Collecting system anomalies
(iii) Renal ascent and fusion anomalies
(iv) Lower urinary tract obstruction anomalies.
Table 3 presents a summary of these abnormalities.
1.1 Key words
Renal dysplasia, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, megaureter, megacalycosis, ectopic ureter, ureterocele, duplex kidney, vesicoureteral reflux, ectopic kidney, horseshoe kidney, crossed fused renal ectopia, posterior urethral valves, anterior urethral valves, urethral atresia, prune belly syndrome.
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