Male reproduction is a highly integrated process that involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the testicles, and the excurrent ductal system. Male fertility can be hampered by a wide array of anomalies involving any of these structures, as will be detailed in this section. While the evaluation and treatment of infertile couples has historically focused on the female partner, a new paradigm has emerged over the last several decades that recognizes the important role for evaluating and optimizing the reproductive health of the male partner. This important section highlights both the complexity of normal male fertility as well as the numerous pathophysiological mechanisms by which this delicate balance in normal function can be disrupted.
1.1 Key Words
ejaculation, epididymis, fertility, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), infertility, luteininzing hormone (LH), semen analysis, sperm, testicle, testosterone, varicocele, vas deferens
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